Risk of inadequate intakes of vitamins A, B1, B6, C, E, folate, iron and calcium in the Spanish population aged 4 to 18.

Fecha de publicación



adolescents, children, Inadequate intake, meta-analysis, minerals, Spain y vitamins


A meta-analysis of the most representative Spanish nutrition studies was carried out to identify inadequate intakes of vitamins, A, B1, B6, C, E, folate, iron, and calcium in children aged 4 to 18. Information on vegetable, fruit and fruit juice/beverage intake was also solicited. Data drawn from the selected studies yielded a total of 6540 children and adolescents in eight geographical areas. The sample was stratified by age (children: 4 to 14 years old and adolescents: 13-18 years old) and sex. Inadequate intakes (below two-thirds of the recommended values) were notable in children for vitamin E, vitamin C, and vitamin A and in girls, iron. In adolescents, low intakes were especially marked for vitamin E and vitamin A, and in girls, calcium, folate, and iron. Adolescents consumed more vegetables, fruit juice, and fruit drinks whereas children had higher fruit intakes. Regional differences in consumption were also detected. Strategies for improving nutrient intake in these vulnerable populations are discussed.


Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2001 Nov;71(6):325-31. doi: . Epub .